The containment and immobilization of hazardous materials using ground-freezing technology is a relatively new field, even though ground freezing has been in use for well over a century. Ground freezing is certainly applicable inasmuch as the geotechnical characteristics which ground freezing enhances are ideally suited to the control of waterborne pollutants. The change of state of water from liquid to solid has an obvious immobilizing effect. The challenge with ground freezing technology is to be technically and economically viable over the long term, considering that few, if any, conventional ground freezing applications have been utilized for long term applications.